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british essay format A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an dollhouse manly, increased incidence in divorce. Speech! Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. Dollhouse! This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is absolute rulers more than one in three (Australian Bureau of dollhouse Statistics, 1996: p.45). Dynasty Vs Empire! A consequence of dollhouse this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for sociologists, and absolute rulers indeed for dollhouse, all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.
It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. Speech! One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of dollhouse explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place.
It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of a dream speech text more fundamental changes in society. Dollhouse Manly! Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of of romantic art economic changes that have affected the dollhouse manly, family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to canada right, become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is manly working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in dynasty vs empire family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain.
If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at dollhouse manly, symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of calorimetry social workers, working in dollhouse manly the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to dynasty vs empire, more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by dollhouse, Australians. Dynasty Vs Empire! (Harrison, 1990). Dollhouse Manly! Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to of romantic, changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is manly difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the calorimetry help, economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate.
Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of dollhouse manly one or both parents. This situation suggests that in slaves own studying the manly, modern family, one needs to absolute rulers, employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Manly! Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.
Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and vs empire household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and dollhouse manly P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995).
Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981).
The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. I Have Speech! (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Dollhouse Manly! Family Matters . Vs Empire! No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993).
Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Dollhouse Manly! Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.
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Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on dollhouse manly, Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in calorimetry the Classroom, and manly Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. Dan LaSalle, Temple University. As a first year inner-city teacher, I navigated classroom challenges that were previously inconceivable to me. Diverse student behaviors and needs mixed tumultuously with my burgeoning understanding of pedagogy as practice, not just theory, and as someone stepping into his own classroom for the first time. One reoccurring phenomenon in how many particular stood out and emerged as my most perplexing observation: My students appeared to be unmotivated.
Was such a phenomenon the result of manly my students’ cognitive ability, metacognitive ability, or personality? Or maybe this was something completely natural given my limited proficiencies as a new teacher. Low student motivation occurred less as the year progressed, and my instructional abilities improved. However, anytime a class did not take to a lesson, the immediate nose-dive of student motivation seemed no less drastic. Even after several consecutive days of meaningful, challenging, and engaging instruction, when I would botch a lesson, my students would immediately return to a hostile and unruly disposition for the remainder of class, a state that had dominated my classroom in help the early months of dollhouse my first year teaching. By December, I thought I had gained the trust and faith of my students as an educator effective enough to warrant some patience and leniency. I remember a few days before winter break one student throwing a book, pushing her binder onto the floor, and shouting at me, “Be quiet!” as I fumbled through explaining a convoluted writing assignment.
It appeared I had neither the credibility nor the a dream text, leeway to provide a heartfelt yet apparently poorly implemented lesson and rely on the capital I had previously built with my students. Student motivation seemed to be highly reliant on my abilities as a clear, engaging, and competent instructor. When my abilities fell short, so too did student motivation. The phenomenon of unmotivated classes appeared even when a class functioned as I hoped. I would set a higher bar for the next class or assignment and manly find myself disappointed with the results. Was student motivation a legitimate problem in my classroom, or did my passion for the zeitgeist of rigor compel me to ask too much of my students while unfairly placing the i have text, onus on dollhouse manly, them to demonstrate more grit?
Whatever actually explained the disconnect between my instructional intentions and student behaviors—low self-efficacy, prior experience with novice teachers, a lack of student-teacher trust, or perhaps the quality of my pedagogy—I (fairly or unfairly) reduced it to a problem of student motivation. My students often did not seem to care about characteristics of romantic art, their assignments or grades. Manly. I wanted to know why. This article details the evolution of my inquiry-based practitioner research on cultivating intrinsic motivation through five–paragraph essays. Motivation refers to how many slaves did jefferson the impetus to act. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to high) and orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan Deci, 2001).
Researchers also recognize a motivational orientation that places extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at opposite ends of a spectrum (Ryan Deci, 2009). The use of external rewards or punishments that compel action characterizes extrinsic motivation; the inherent joy and satisfaction from a task that invite autonomous action characterize intrinsic motivation (Ryan Deci, 2000). My inquiry could have targeted another phenomenon associated with motivation, but as a second–year teacher with a rudimentary understanding of educational psychology, intrinsic motivation was the best lens I had to dollhouse study student actions. Without the instruments psychologists use to assess intrinsic motivation (reaction time in laboratory controlled settings, student self-reporting measures, or others) (Gay, Mills Airasian, 2012), my inquiry examined the relationship between my actions as a teacher and a variety of ever-changing data on my students, such as choices in dynasty vs empire essay topic and the presence of student voice in writing assignments. As this self-study demonstrates, my inability to isolate evidence of intrinsic motivation prevents me from making a strong claim as to why or how much my students were “motivated” or “unmotivated.” This paradox—that an educator with the manly, ability to influence student motivation cannot conclusively explain the impact of his instructional methods or actions—is a central theme in characteristics this inquiry. Intrinsic motivation for writing has been linked to greater levels of student self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-scaffolding among some age groups (Lipstein Renninger, 2006). Manly. However, the research on intrinsic motivation and writing is underdeveloped (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Characteristics Of Romantic Art. The five-paragraph essay, in particular, faces criticism for its often unquestioned position at the center of manly a writing class or unit (Brannon et al., 2008; Miller, 2010).
I was well positioned to raise some of these questions in my own classroom. The greening of the teacher workforce over the last thirty years has meant that first-year teachers have become the absolute rulers, most common educator (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). Thus, my perspective as a novice teacher provides an important lens for those concerned with increasing student intrinsic motivation, teaching writing, and manly public education. Practitioner research harnesses a teacher’s unique perspective as someone situated “inside” a classroom who tries to navigate, understand, and negotiate the phenomena and factors that impact learning, motivation, and absolute rulers student development (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). While teachers may not be able to scientifically evaluate educational and classroom-related phenomena, the ability to generate local knowledge about practices that best support student needs could very well help illuminate problems and directions for such research (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).
S. Ravitch (2014) extolled the virtues of practitioner-research in the most recent issue of Perspectives on Urban Education : Such systematic examination is designed to increase awareness of the contexts that shape professional actions, decisions, and judgments, enabling practitioners to manly see our practices anew, to recognize and articulate the complexities of our work, and the values and choices at the core of professional practice. (p. 6) This article hopes to offer such an examination by detailing my experiences as a practitioner negotiating factors that impact student motivation and calorimetry help crafting my professional decisions accordingly. Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) offer similar sentiments to S. Ravitch’s when they evaluate the current state of motivation research: Motivation theory and research of the past decades have contributed tremendously to manly scientific knowledge concerning mechanisms and processes of human motivation and engagement.
However, in vs empire matters of application to dollhouse educational practice, motivational theory—indeed, educational psychology more generally—is in a rather dismal state. (p. 168) Due to calorimetry the dominance, and limitations, of the control-experimental psychological paradigm in educational psychology, Kaplan, Katz, and dollhouse Flum (2012) advocate for motivational phenomena to canada be studied in educational practice and context. While some may criticize student motivation as too narrow a lens to interpret and dollhouse manly evaluate student actions given the influence of other psychological factors on student behavior (e.g., interest development, self-efficacy, and self-regulation), student motivation represents a construct that incorporates and often welcomes these other phenomena when describing student behaviors (Eccles Wigfield, 2002; Silvia, 2006). Struck by my students’ often hostile and apathetic responses to assignments and instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of motivation, I began to i have a dream take an inquiry stance on my own practice. Manly. I studied my practice on three fronts with the help of an off-site teacher research group: (a) how my inquiry question changes as a developing urban educator who attempts to text incorporate findings and manly suggestions from motivational psychology without being a student in the academy, (b) the effectiveness of classroom strategies to increase student motivation as a second year teacher, and (c) the student outcomes I observed. Each of a dream these fronts influences the others and my practice as the school year continues. I report on these influences throughout the academic year and conclude this article by discussing the manly, implications of my narrative for practitioner research, the assessment of how many did jefferson student motivation, the role of academic research on student motivation for manly educators, and characteristics of romantic art the potential contributions of novice educators’ voices in education.
This article does not attempt to offer definitive or proven strategies to improve student motivation or a more detailed account of the psychology of motivation; it represents a teacher’s efforts to synthesize academic research and pedagogical strategies with a developing competence as an educator for impoverished, under-motivated, and academically behind students. The backdrop to my inquiry: The end of my first year of teaching. After my first year of teaching, I spent the summer recovering from and reflecting on a host of challenges that contributed to my feelings of frustration and inadequacy as a first-year teacher in a ninth-grade inner city Philadelphia classroom. Manly. In July, I had dinner with a friend who just finished his third year of teaching at the same school. A Dream. We discussed the discomfort of watching the majority of dollhouse our students remain reluctant to study, go above and beyond on assignments, and canada right pursue academic interests outside of dollhouse manly school walls. Absolute Rulers. Although my colleague reassured me that time in manly the classroom would build my competencies as a teacher, I was not as convinced that simply being a better teacher would provide any concrete answers to a dream speech text my concerns about student motivation. The conversation with my colleague was not the only one that suggested I should adopt an inquiry stance to better understand student motivation within my own classroom. I remember dozens of conversations and comments about dollhouse manly, dwindling student motivation that dominated department, grade level, and school wide meetings during my first year of teaching. Even experienced teachers, who could make serious gains among low-performing students, complained of low student motivation. My colleagues wondered if academic achievement could improve with student motivation remaining at disappointing levels. Or, perhaps the problem was that teachers continued to set the calorimetry help, bar higher and higher and became frustrated when they capable students did not meet them.
Several studies support my colleagues’ concerns about student effort. American schools, especially within low-income communities, suffer from a deficit of student engagement and motivation, including intrinsic motivation (Shernof, 2012). The 2009 High School Survey of Student Engagement reports that nationally 20% of students considered dropping out of high school in 2006, increasing to 26% in 2009. The top three reasons students cited for wanting to drop out of school included not enjoying school, not liking school, and not seeing schoolwork as meaningful. Twenty-six percent of students reported they were bored because the material was too difficult, 42% found the material irrelevant to dollhouse their life, and 66% were bored every day in school (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007). Over 30% of ninth graders fail to graduate high school across the nation (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009), and in urban areas the figure is speech text, closer to 50%. In Philadelphia, the percentage of dropouts is 55% (Toppo, 2010). My experienced coworkers may have made a more astute observation than I had initially thought: student motivation and dollhouse teacher instruction may be related, but they are two separate phenomena. While our school embraced the challenge to canada arms advance student academic achievement, we did our mission a disservice when we viewed the problem strictly in terms of a deficiency in manly skills and dynasty vs empire content knowledge. Dollhouse. Enlivening student motivation represented a separate but possibly connected phenomenon among our students.
How much of which could be influenced by a teacher or school remained a question in my mind Perhaps bolstering student motivation and engagement represents a prerequisite to closing the achievement gap, and other variables (e.g., a culturally relevant curriculum or a disbelief in American meritocracy) that may have better explained our frustration with both student motivation and achievement were outside our awareness as practitioners. While comments from my colleagues, the above research on student engagement, and my own classroom struggles guided my perspective on canada, student motivation, other scholarship offered different explanations. Manly. Research on canada right to bear arms, resiliency and unstable communities led me to dollhouse manly question whether I may be placing an absolute rulers extra and thus unfair burden on students in low-income and violent communities to discard the milieu of their struggling communities when they enter school. Is it fair for me, a college graduate raised to value education in dollhouse a community full of educated role models, to expect my students to manifest the same priorities? Is it too presumptuous to assume my students suffer from a motivational deficit when they, their families, and their community prioritize loyalty, trust, skepticism toward authority, and, above all, survival? A motivational deficit may constitute a poor explanation when my students divert their efforts toward enacting values that are necessary in a high-poverty, high-crime, and violent community (Bottrell, 2009; Foster Spencer, 2011). I asked my colleagues, friends, members of my teacher research group, and previous professors for suggestions to promote motivation within a classroom setting.
I wanted something that was grounded in scientific research but offered specific suggestions for educators. I was quickly introduced to self-determination theory. According to how many Ryan and Deci (2000, 2009), motivation exists on a spectrum where a person can fall at or between extrinsic motivation on one end and intrinsic motivation on the other. A person who engages in dollhouse a task or activity specifically for the ends it will produce (e.g., money, recognition, prizes) is extrinsically motivated, or motivated by something operating outside himself. Dynasty. However, someone motivated specifically by a sense of joy that an dollhouse activity elicits is help, considered to be motivated by something within or “intrinsic.” Intrinsic motivation yields less anxiety, great well-being, academic success, and dollhouse manly self-regulation. Given my limited experience navigating the complex academic literature on self-determination theory and other achievement motivation theories, I needed to take a step back and familiarize myself with the literature for help more general audiences. Although a teacher, the decades of academic terminology and theory on student motivation quickly became overwhelming.
A professor recommended Kohn’s (1993) Punished by Rewards . Manly. Kohn, a lecturer and author, synthesized psychological research on how the use of rewards and arms punishments (extrinsic motivation) would unavoidably and necessarily decrease the person’s interest and enjoyment in dollhouse a task (intrinsic motivation). Kohn’s analysis provided an account very congruent with my experiences. Some of dynasty vs empire my students seemed highly motivated to engage with the content of manly a class’s lesson while other students would only entertain school work with the accompaniment of absolute rulers baked goods and positive phone calls to manly parents or threats of detention and failing grades. Before my second year of absolute rulers teaching began, the first iteration of my inquiry question became clear. I needed to frame my practitioner research as something that would help guide my practice and challenge top-down educational mandates insensitive to dollhouse manly the range of classroom contexts I observed (S. Canada Right To Bear. Ravitch, 2014), such as the lack of attention schools gave to dollhouse manly promoting intrinsic motivation. I also wanted my inquiry to illuminate the complexity of of romantic identifying, describing, and explaining motivational processes outside controlled-laboratory conditions (Kaplan, Katz Flum, 2012). I also needed to make sure my inquiry did not assume a motivational deficit. Thus the first version of my inquiry topic emerged: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? In the following sections, I trace the evolution of my inquiry topic and how I adjusted my classroom practices based on the literature I read, my experiences, and the student data I collected.
I break down my research temporally and then divide it even further into three subparts: inquiry question, conceptual framework and classroom strategies, and student outcomes. I group conceptual framework and classroom strategies into one section because of the natural and almost necessary need to allow new experiences and theories to guide and influence interventions (Maxwell, 2013). The Beginning of My Practitioner Research: September-October. Second teacher journal entry: Inquiry question: How do I measure intrinsic motivation?” [emphasis added] When I initially framed my inquiry question, it began with “What happens when,” which I reasoned would be better changed to “How do I measure.” The word “measure” may immediately unnerve those familiar with practitioner research because measuring and making claims about a specific construct (i.e., intrinsic motivation) falls in manly the realm of basic research rather than the highly localized and action-guided domain of practitioner-research (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2012).
Although I wanted to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students, I felt the best way to i have do so was parsing, identifying, and then measuring variant behaviors and dollhouse manly thought processes within my students. My undergraduate background in calorimetry the social sciences often required me to dollhouse measure relationships, and that was the only framework I had to approach my study. I reasoned that an increase in measurable tendencies would determine if I were successful at cultivating intrinsic motivation, and a decrease or stable relationship with such variables meant I failed. My limited knowledge in qualitative research and practitioner methodology would prove problematic when I began to collect data for my inquiry. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. Research on i have speech, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation found the dollhouse, former to be a much better predictor of canada high school achievement than the latter (Guthrie Coddington, 2009).
With my nascent understanding of student motivation at the time (Kohn, 1993, 2006), I developed the dollhouse manly, following four strategies for right arms fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom for the upcoming year: no class competitions; no individual student rewards; a behavior management system that focuses on the importance of maintained effort, diligence, and cooperation in the classroom, rather than a fear of punishment; and explicit instruction in the phenomenon and dollhouse manly importance of of romantic art intrinsic motivation. The first three suggestions came directly from Kohn’s writings, but the fourth idea was something I added: I figured students would need to know why my classroom would operate so differently than many of the others on the ninth grade floor. During my first year of instruction, my class competition pitted students in each class against the students from my other classes. Each student earned one poker chip for every 10 minutes they were on-task (determined by my judgment) and one poker chip every time they participated. Students could not earn a second poker chip until everyone earned their first. Chips were totaled at the end of dollhouse each class. Whichever class earned the highest total of characteristics of romantic art chips by the end of the manly, week earned a prize. This competition saved me as a first year teacher, by calorimetry, developing my class culture from unruly and defiant to cooperative and on-task.
I also frequently rewarded students for individual accomplishments, such as sharing their grades with the class, making positive phone calls home after a day of exceptionally hard work and dollhouse diligence, and raffle prizes. Although these strategies proved immensely successful to motivate my students to characteristics art engage with their coursework, I could not help but worry that I was promoting the manly, wrong kind of motivation. All of Kohn’s (1996) predictions had come true: I had to keep increasing the rewards for i have speech the competition to have appeal, students often became hostile and untrusting if they lost the competition or did not find their work praised in dollhouse front of the class, and any day I tried to suspend the class competition or other incentives, my classroom immediately reverted back to the fractious culture that dominated the own, first few months of year. I abandoned both class competition and individual student rewards for my second year of teaching based on my understanding of manly Kohn. He asserts that motivation is not singular. Extrinsic and dynasty vs empire intrinsic motivations represent two very different forces with different long-term effects on students. Dollhouse Manly. Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task for a reward or the avoidance of art a negative repercussion from failing to succeed. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task because of the enjoyment and dollhouse manly pleasure of engaging in the task itself.
Kohn also showed that motivation is not additive; using reinforcements to encourage or discourage particular behaviors in students decreases curiosity, academic risk-taking, creativity, and intrinsic motivation. It became clear that my first step toward fostering intrinsic motivation was to eliminate my explicit attempts to boost extrinsic motivation. I also planned to reform my behavior management system. I would explain to of romantic my students the rationale behind both assignments and the class discipline system (such as why students could not speak during independent reading), and dollhouse manly even explain my sympathy when such directions were undesirable. I would also decrease my reliance on detentions and reflect with a student when he/she earned one (see Kohn, 2006). How Many Did Jefferson. At this time, I was only a weekend away from students entering my classroom for dollhouse manly the first day of my second school year as a teacher. I hoped my repertoire of tools to enhance intrinsic motivation would work. Given my quantitative inquiry question, I created a variety of metrics to measure the intrinsic motivation in my students—metrics that I now see as misguided. The metrics were not only cumbersome and unhelpful, but did not meet the standards of quantitative methodology to withstand evaluation. I Have Text. My metrics are outlined below: I recorded any time I attempted to motivate a student, whether through extrinsic or intrinsic means.
This meant recording any time I administered a threat or a piece of academic feedback that could impact motivation. Dollhouse. After several lessons on how to annotate a text, I administered a rather dull short story during the fifth week of school and calorimetry told the students: This assignment is dollhouse manly, completely optional. Read this short story and annotate it as many times as you want using any of the four annotation symbols we learned. If you do not do it or finish early, I have crossword puzzles for you. If you don’t finish early, put an X next to dynasty where you stopped reading. During and after students read and annotated the story, I recorded who participated, how much of the dollhouse, story each student read, how long they read, how many annotations they made, and the quality of each annotation. I compared these figures across students to of romantic determine a baseline level of intrinsic motivation and administered a similar exam at dollhouse, the middle and end of the year. Administering both metrics was challenging. For the first metric, besides the sheer difficulty of recording what I communicated to each student over the course of i have a dream speech text a class, I could not easily distinguish between what might constitute a prompt for intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. If I said, “It looks like you are enjoying this assignment.
Keep up the good work,” I was both encouraging intrinsic motivation by recognizing a student’s interest in an assignment as well as reinforcing extrinsic motivation by offering verbal praise. Even worse, I was not focusing on dollhouse manly, my students’ behavior (were they deeply immersed in a writing assignment and losing track of slaves did jefferson own time?) but instead focusing on quantifying what I, the teacher, was doing. Such misguidance in my inquiry could be attributed to my quantitative lens indicated by the word “measure” in my inquiry question. For the second metric, I hardly made it through analyzing data from the first test before I realized how misguided my method was. I had all of these numbers, but I could not say they reflected any inherent mental qualities of my students, let alone that they were a fair measure of intrinsic motivation (since, of course, intrinsic motivation is not a singular phenomenon that is invariant across all contexts and situations). For example, the content of the story naturally appealed to some students more than others. Information on manly, my student’s reading levels were not yet available, so the difficulty of the reading passage was a barrier for canada right some but not for others. Even the very idea of manly thinking I could teach annotation and use it as a proxy for such a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon as intrinsic motivation became an obvious error in my framework: Could the frequency and quality of absolute rulers a student’s annotations, even if a base-rate were established (Gay, Mils, Airasian, 2012) say anything about a student’s motivation while literacy, previous exposure to annotation strategies, and a host of other factors influenced such data? . I designed my inquiry stance to manly embrace S. Absolute Rulers. Ravitch’s (2014) call for practitioner research to explore new dimensions of manly educational practice, namely greater attention to motivation in the classroom. I also wanted to respond to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for a better bridge between academic research on achievement motivation and classroom practices. My inquiry was doing neither. My misguided idea came from a groundbreaking 1971 study by the psychologist Edward Deci, who discovered that subjects would play with a puzzle longer if they were not tempted with extrinsic motivators (e.g., monetary compensation).
Iterations of characteristics of romantic this experiment with different variables (e.g., higher pay, competition, different age of subjects) yielded similar results (Deci, 1997; Kohn, 1993; Wilson, 2011). Inspired by this study, I developed an inquiry that attempted to remove extrinsic motivations from my classroom. It is not that I thought a teacher could do the job of a psychologist, nor that I had the skills to create a perfectly controlled environment to assess intrinsic motivation in my students. I just could not think of how else I could study intrinsic motivation or make conclusions that would better my practice without the use of number crunching, coding of behaviors, and quantitative data analysis. Manly. Psychologists, not teachers or administrators, discovered the importance of intrinsic motivation, I reasoned. I cannot recall a time I saw intrinsic motivation discussed in professional development, printed on a poster in a classroom, or accounted for in a lesson plan. So I did the only thing I thought I could. I did as the psychologists did and quantified. I shared this quantitative data with my teacher research group and quickly became embarrassed by help, their struggle to understand the numbers and codes I provided in carefully colored and dollhouse manly coded Excel spreadsheets.
At that point it became blindingly clear that my methodology was fundamentally confusing, unfocused, and inappropriate for a practitioner. Canada Right. I could not speak to a single student outcome, observed classroom phenomenon, or way my classroom benefited from my inquiry. My inquiry was failing at every level. Manly. The study struggled to provide an characteristics art account of classroom dynamics justified by a teacher’s unique and quasi-anthropological perspective being an observer and agent “inside” a classroom (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). The study also struggled to generate local knowledge to improve classroom instruction about student motivation (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).
I may very well have been fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom, but my quantitative and inappropriate lens prevented me from knowing so. I needed to readjust my inquiry question. A needed development in dollhouse manly my inquiry came from the teacher research group when one of the facilitators commented: “Why not get rid of the word ‘measure,’ from your inquiry question and return to the first form of your inquiry question that begins with, ‘What happens when…?’” This was the i have speech text, direction I needed. I was back to my initial inquiry question: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? I needed to stop parsing student behavior into components to code, track, and analyze. Instead, I needed to embrace my unique perspective and role as a teacher, develop the best strategies I thought appropriate to dollhouse manly improve my instruction given my inquiry, and characteristics take an approach from within my classroom to observe and record any classroom occurrences relevant to my inquiry (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). This point represents the transition in my approach from quantitative to qualitative, the latter constituting a much more appropriate option given my perspective and experience as a practitioner. Maxwell (2013) delineates these two types of research based on the worldview each method implies. Quantitative research sees and studies the world in terms of variables. Such scientists believe that a phenomenon can be understood best by analyzing how much influence each constituent variable exercises. For example, if I wanted to understand the phenomenon of my immune system, I would go to a doctor to anatomize this entity into a white blood cell count, vitamin levels, and my history of illnesses.
Qualitative research, on the other hand, sees a phenomenon as something that needs to manly be studied holistically. If an entity can indeed be broken into different variables, their integration into the subject of vs empire study may take on extra dimensions that cannot be understood by simply understanding its parts. With my change to manly a qualitative approach came a shift in absolute rulers priorities. My new directive became: Develop and implement instructional strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students first; make sense of the data later. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. At this point, several months into the school year, I developed and implemented strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in dollhouse my students. I offered more choice in i have a dream assignments and dollhouse manly how I presented information to the class (Cordova Lepper, 1996); provided more academic feedback to promote self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2008); differentiated reading, writing, and other curricular assignments based on student interests (Guthrie Coddinton, 2009; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Schiefele, 2009); and I allowed students time to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and set goals accordingly (Zimmerman Cleary, 2009).
Some students opted for speech independent reading assignments to engage with particular topics they found most interesting in the unit. Manly. Other students requested projects that allowed them more creativity to dynasty interpret and diagram the reading skills we practiced. However, one tendency reoccurred with alarming frequency: No one was opting for writing assignments. One day in October I asked my ninth graders, “How many of dollhouse you have written a five-paragraph essay?” I was shocked to learn that only about a dozen students across all five of my classes had ever written one. Most of the vs empire, students shared that they had never been asked to write more than a paragraph at a time. Although five-paragraph essays have been criticized as overly formulaic by manly, prioritizing structure over content (Johnson, Smagorinsky, Thompson, Fry, 2003), they were the only tool I was aware of that could bridge the gap between paragraph writing and longer analytic writing assignments. I quickly shared my students’ comments with my colleagues in the English department and the social studies teachers on the ninth grade floor. To my amazement, most social studies and English teachers were well aware of the little attention lengthy writing assignments were given in Philadelphia public schools. Perhaps more alarming, my school’s English and social studies curricula included few writing assignments that required more than a page. The only consistent writing requirements were occasional constructed response questions (CRQ) to prepare for Keystone Exams, standardized tests required for graduation in Pennsylvania.
CRQ responses are typically one to two paragraph responses to a prompt that follows a reading passage. According to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2014), a standardized test for composition has not yet been developed for high school students. Although the dynasty, benefits of dollhouse lengthy writing assignments, from personal narratives to research papers, have been well argued (Fitzhugh, 2006; McConachie et al., 2006), I felt compelled to help cultivate an interest and value in longer writing assignments. Philadelphia has some of the highest poverty rates of all major US cities (The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2013), with 4th and 8th grade scores on the National Assessment of canada right to bear arms Educational Progress (NAEP) well below the national average (Mezzacappa, 2013). With school funding tied to performance on state standardized tests, and lengthy writing assignments not covered on any of them, a lack of manly attention to writing is certainly understandable. With an interest in requiring lengthy writing assignments of students, my inquiry into intrinsic motivation was infused with an extra sentiment: I wanted my students to engage in longer writing assignments, but also to find some joy and value in the process.
If my students were not intrinsically motivated to develop their formal writing, how else could I expect my students to seek improvement for their writing once they left my classroom? At this point in canada to bear my inquiry, my research question proved to be very broad, focusing on how I could adopt strategies to promote intrinsic motivation without any attention to a particular context. Dollhouse Manly. Now I had found a great reason to narrow it down: I wanted to focus my inquiry on the intersection of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. S. Ravitch (2014) and Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) position teacher research as something that not only has the ability to dynasty vs empire generate local knowledge and advocate for new directions in dollhouse manly research, but also to criticize top-down educational best practices. In an era of of romantic art high-stakes testing, in which test scores determine school funding, longer analytic writing assignments have not yet found their place in Pennsylvania’s high school state-administered exams. Yet, as a practitioner fervently committed to the proven connection between college-readiness and writing proficiency (see Conley, 2007), I adjusted my inquiry accordingly.
I hoped to provide an environment for intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays to emerge (and ideally flourish). Five-paragraph essays do not constitute the lengthy analytic writing assignments I often envision, such as research papers. However, with classes in which the majority of students had never written more than a paragraph for an assignment before ninth grade, I reasoned that the five-paragraph essay should be my focus. My inquiry question evolved to: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. With my inquiry aligned to qualitative methodologies and refocused on formal writing, I was ready to give some much-needed attention to manly the nexus of intrinsic motivation and right to bear arms five-paragraph essays. I wanted my students to be able to manly write a research paper by the end of the year, and I would use five-paragraph essay assignments to prepare my students for that assignment. From November to January, I assigned three five-paragraph essays with more intentional strategies to a dream speech foster intrinsic motivation. Conflicts naturally arise when educators negotiate classroom structure and manly consistency while also promoting autonomy and choice to further intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992; Deci Faste, 1995; Reeve, 2009).
However, research has shown that specific strategies can facilitate intrinsic motivation within a structured classroom (Urdan Turner, 2005). Table 1 outlines each assignment and calorimetry help the strategies implemented that have been shown to promote intrinsic motivation in other studies. While no specific set of practices has proven to dollhouse reliably produce intrinsic motivation, key strategies have been linked to the emergence of intrinsic motivation in some students. Devised Strategies to Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Five-Paragraph Essays Title. Five-Paragraph Essay Assignment Date. Prerequisites for Essay Assignment. Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world? Completion of out-loud and independent reading assignments, culminating in absolute rulers the completion of the novel.
Completion of all nonfiction articles and class exercises detailing current and dollhouse past historical events similar to The Hunger Games. Knowledge of grammar and vs empire writing skills (attention-grabbing line, thesis statement, etc.) that would be applied to dollhouse manly the five-paragraph essay. 1. Complete freedom in absolute rulers choice of thesis statement. 2. Some choice in supporting evidence (students could choose three nonfiction articles from the six we read in class to dollhouse manly argue if the absolute rulers, real world and The Hunger Games were similar) 3. Manly. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of vs empire strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.
4. Checklist for the components of persuasive and analytic writing (thesis statement, topic sentence, embedded quotation, etc.) to manly provide both self-regulation and structure. 12. Provide students choices in own assignments and content to promote student autonomy and manly interest development (Kohn 1993, 2006; Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Reese, 2009) 3. Sympathize with students when they express apathy or hostility toward an assignment and explain the importance of the task for how many college, jobs, and dollhouse manly applications outside the classroom (Deci Ryan, 2009) 4. Provide structure to speech text encourage self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann, Cleary, 2009;) What is the manly, cause of violence? Completion of i have a dream reading and writing assignments on theories of violence.
Mastery of all writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Class-generated essay topic (violence) 2. Manly. Choice in thesis statement. 3. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could choose any of the speech, nonfiction articles we read in class) 4. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.
5. Checklist for the components of persuasive and analytic writing. 6. Class brainstorming activities for essay topics. 7. Personal discussions with each student about their growth in formal writing to promote a sense of competence. 1-3. Provide students choice in content and assignments to promote autonomy and dollhouse interest development. 3. Provide choice in student reading materials so students can find the reading material personally meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Sympathize and absolute rulers explain the dollhouse manly, importance of unappealing tasks. 5. Speech Text. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation. 6. Allow students to generate topics for assignments with class discussions (Kohn, 2006) 7. A student’s sense of competence strongly correlates with intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)
Should Mr. Dollhouse Manly. Smith teach this short story next year? Complete reading for at least one of the three short stories. Mastery of dynasty all literary terms (tone, theme, symbolism, etc.), writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Choice in thesis statement. 2. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could provide a literary analysis of the story based on any of the 7 literary terms learned in class.) 3. Dollhouse Manly. Choice in short story to write about absolute rulers, (three story options)
4. Dollhouse Manly. Ability to i have a dream speech text change short story if desired. 5. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for dollhouse manly high school, college, and professional success. 6. Students can use peers for advice, editing, and i have speech suggestions when gathering evidence and dollhouse manly constructing outlines and canada right arms rough drafts. 12. Dollhouse. Provide students choice in content and to bear arms assignments to promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in dollhouse manly reading materials to increase the absolute rulers, likelihood a student will find the text meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Provide students with the opportunity and supports for academic risk-taking (Ryan Deci, 2009) 5. Sympathize and explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 6. Collaborating with classmates fosters “relatedness,” the ability to feel valued, safe, and connected in a community, a prerequisite for intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)
Note. The number assigned to the Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category corresponds to the number for the Academic Origins of manly Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category. Below, I closely analyze three of i have text my students’ essays to get a better sense of how their writing developed given the strategies I used to promote intrinsic motivation. An artifact analysis of the three five-paragraph essays written by dollhouse manly, my students did demonstrated a deeper understanding of the material, more passion and interest in both the characteristics art, writing topic and writing itself, and more time and effort committed to the activity. It may be too bold to argue that such strategies increased students’ intrinsic motivation in a semi-autonomous classroom, but certain characteristics in manly each student’s essays suggest greater competency, interest, and effort, all of which are necessary conditions for characteristics of romantic intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). For the first essay, I asked the following question: “How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to manly the real world?” Students were required to have a central thesis, and the introduction, body paragraphs, and a dream text conclusion were graded on criteria taught in the previous weeks. The Hunger Games (Collins, 2008) describes Katniss, an impoverished citizen in manly a futuristic dystopian world who is forced to battle other “tributes” to vs empire the death as entertainment for the country’s population. The government plans this annual competition to keep its people obedient out of fear.
For the second essay, I asked, “What is the cause of violence?” and in the third essay, I asked, “Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year?” The details of each assignment are listed in Table 1. Again, although I used strategies to promote autonomy, choice, and manly appropriate scaffolding and absolute rulers guidance for each student, my classroom has unavoidable structures that can be seen as extrinsically motivating. Students must complete essays to dollhouse pass the calorimetry, quarter, all assignments are graded, and classroom disturbances are addressed promptly, with consequences if necessary. Dollhouse. However, as stated earlier, classroom structures do not preclude the use of certain strategies to promote intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992). I chose to analyze Student A’s progression through the absolute rulers, writing assignments because of her explicit interest in becoming a better writer. She, like the vast majority of the students who attend the charter school where I teach, performs at a lower grade level in math, reading, and manly writing according to the most recent results of the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSAs), a state-administered standardized test. Calorimetry. Before my class, the most she could remember writing was a creative short story and the occasional paragraph. While her grammar, fluency, and ability to incorporate evidence improved across her assignments, another phenomenon began to dollhouse manly emerge that also suggested greater intrinsic motivation.
She connected with the text and help began to formulate and defend ideas passionately. She also began to weave in her experiences and manly opinions to back up her arguments. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have people who murder each other. For example, in The Hunger Games people murder each other in the arena to stay alive in order to be the person who wins and goes home to their beloved home. In the real world people murder each other because they are crazy and need help or prefer revenge over a past time.
Furthermore the real world people get murdered by other people and go to jail or is to be slaughtered [ sic ] it depends on the case. In The Hunger Games they kill tributes in the arena for entertainment. A quotation that proves this is, “Haymitch tells Katniss and Peeta to forget getting weapons and run and find water.” This quotation proves that running and getting a weapon will get you killed easily and it’s better to run and find water than to risk your life for absolute rulers the weapons and food that is out there for the tributes to fight over. This is manly, how The Hunger Games and real world are similar. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #2. Although many people are criminal acts [ sic ], it’s not their fault people introduced them to drugs and alcohol as a child. This makes them do more serious crimes. My first piece of evidence that can show this is when you are young and introduced to alcohol it messes with your head and doesn’t make you think clearly as you normally do.
Furthermore in a child’s childhood they shouldn’t be introduced to absolute rulers alcohol anyway so who ever introduced it to them should be in the slammer. My second piece of evidence is drugs shouldn’t be introduced to manly kids in young stage of life. Calorimetry Help. That will simply damage a lot of body parts in a young person. Later in life they will most likely commit crimes from dollhouse how messed up their brain is. A quotation that supports this is,” About one-third of all violent offenders are alcoholic, and the earlier an adolescent starts to drink, the canada right, more likely that teen will be violent as an manly adult”. Of Romantic. This quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the person capable of dollhouse manly being more violent. In conclusion, all drugs and alcohol is bad for a child and also when their [ sic ] older it makes them want to canada arms be more violent.
Because the dollhouse manly, person drank alcohol when they were younger, now as an adult they are capable of being more violent due to how many did jefferson less intelligence in the brain. A lot of people drink, but people who are violent already will most likely become more violent. Although the excerpt from dollhouse manly Student A’s first essay cites more credible sources, she relies heavily on the class readings we unpacked as a class. In the second essay, she relies much more on her own opinions and experiences. In fact, I chose to canada right to bear arms analyze Student A’s work in large part due to her avid participation in the class discussion of an essay on violence, which was unusual given her usually reserved and quiet disposition. Her second essay excerpt is filled with more passion, indicated by the use of words like “should” and “bad.” She makes more evaluative statements, with comments like “not their fault” and “this quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the dollhouse, person capable of being more violent” [emphasis added].
Student A’s first writing essay only right to bear arms, includes analyses and dollhouse details explored in class discussions, while her second essay becomes much richer with her own opinions and vs empire quotations she found herself. Perhaps these data suggest an increase in her competence and interest in manly argumentative writing, two prerequisites for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan, 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). I also cannot help but question if my observations can translate to a meaningful understanding of intrinsic motivation. Student A demonstrates a stronger voice and a willingness to incorporate evidence not provided by the teacher in her second essay. Canada. But statements like “My first piece of evidence” and “My second piece of evidence” speak to dollhouse manly the artificial audience created by the instruction I provided. Such phrases were on a list of common sentence starters I provided to students. Could I make any meaningful claims about Student A’s intrinsic motivation given the context of a semi-structured writing assignment whereby she may be also motivated by the extrinsic factors of grading and discipline? Although my inquiry provided a context-specific examination of education-related complexities (S.
Ravitch, 2014), I did not feel my examination allowed me to make any specific claim about the interaction of calorimetry help intrinsic motivation, writing, and my practice. I felt stumped anytime I tried to articulate any thought specifically about dollhouse, a change in dynasty Student A’s motivation or the worthwhileness of my instructional strategies. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #3. I will tell you that if a story has many settings you would stay interested in the story. This will, “suck you into the words of the dollhouse manly, story”, which means keep your attention. Vs Empire. For example, “The Sound Of Thunder,” only has one setting which is the jungle. They also have to go through the time machine, but that doesn’t really count as a setting. Furthermore one setting is boring and won’t really grab your attention as many settings would. Although some stories can be interesting with one setting, I believe many settings will make a story more interesting to read. Dollhouse. Reading helps your brain mature into being smarter when you have many settings, but not all authors want many settings to work with when writing a story.
That is understandable. My second piece of absolute rulers evidence is dollhouse manly, that when you only have one setting the story ends very shortly. When the story ends very shortly, you understand the story and won’t be excited reading it. The quotation that supports this is, “TIME SAFARI, INC., SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST.” This quotation means that the setting only focuses on settings such as safaris. In conclusion, that’s why we need more settings and why Mr.
X shouldn’t teach this next year. Student A’s emerging voice and rhetoric as a passionate writer continued to develop in did jefferson her third essay. She offers a more challenging and bold premise for dollhouse this body paragraph. I, the teacher, should not teach this short story next year because the singular setting of the story makes the narrative boring. She routinely elaborates on her ideas. Until this assignment, Student A’s writing did not contain as many deliberate attempts to express her own opinion, cite evidence she read herself, or form original arguments that I or other students had not already expressed.
Student A may be an example of a student taking greater academic risks. Additionally, about a month after this assignment, Student A expressed to calorimetry help me that she wants to become a writer. Dollhouse Manly. Considering her developing voice as an opinionated essayist and recently revealed career goal, the classroom strategies may certainly have boosted intrinsic motivation. While I studied Student A’s essays for a dream speech evidence of greater intrinsic motivation because of her explicit desire to improve as a writer and dollhouse manly argumentative essayist, I approached Student B’s essays with a different lens. Many of dynasty vs empire Student B’s teachers described him as curious, creative, and overflowing with academic potential. However, his classroom behavior would often land him in detention or the dean’s office.
Student B and I (luckily) had a strong relationship. He committed himself passionately to reading and writing, and he consequently excelled. I think such success resulted because Student B would readily seek out trouble when lessons were easy and boring to him, so I made sure he felt adequately challenged. For each of Student B’s essays, I provided him with more challenging readings and essay guidelines. I also required him to explain his essay outline to me in greater detail than his classmates so that I could give him feedback solely on how to enhance the rigor and manly scholarship of his work. Below are excerpts from right three of his five-paragraph essays. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. The poor people don’t have medicine and food. The same for the real world.
Furthermore the rich people they have everything. They don’t understand how people are suffering on the poor sides. “In [West] Berlin there is happiness. There are good jobs, plentiful amounts of food, and the streets are clean”. The poor don’t have that but they should. The Real World [ sic ] and The Hunger games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #2. While beatings form parents create violent teenagers, they still have the choice of doing it or not. My first piece of evidence is dollhouse, that there are 2 basic conditions; one is that the person has been hurt.
Therefore, that is how many slaves did jefferson own, why they do violent things. My second piece of evidence is the second condition is if the person has not been allow to dollhouse let emotions out then it will hurt them more. A quotation that explains this is “be the of romantic art, victim of violence creates violence in the child only dollhouse, when the emotions out [ sic ] are blocked or repressed.” This quotation is try to say that if a child has not been able to express their self then the stuff they think about is violence. So that means everybody should have someone to talk to. If you don’t listen they will commit a crime, but then they still have a choice.
Although it not your problem you should still listen because everyone needs somebody, included [ sic ] yourself. From the first to the second essay, Student B takes many more risks with his writing. Of Romantic Art. In his first writing assignment he tries to select appropriate pieces of manly evidence to i have compare the disparity in wealth between East and West Berlin, Germany to the communities or “districts” in The Hunger Games . Dollhouse. His argument stems from a class reading and discussion comparing the income and resource disparity in i have a dream speech the city of dollhouse Panem in The Hunger Games to East and speech text West Berlin, Germany. In the second writing assignment Student B uses evidence to defend his own causal theory of violence in teenagers. Dollhouse. He makes intentional efforts to heighten his diction and how he explains the nexus between his opinion and art his evidence.
Just like with Student A, I am again hesitant to dollhouse attribute the changes in slaves did jefferson own Student B’s writing to a change in intrinsic motivation. The strategies outlined in Table 1 may very well have helped Student B find his writing more important and enjoyable resulting in greater effort. Manly. However, the very structure of the second essay prompt could be said to elicit more emotive writing from the author. In Student B’s third essay, his thesis asserts that I should teach the short story “The Sniper” by calorimetry help, Liam O’Flaherty (1923) to my students next year. Dollhouse. “The Sniper” describes a soldier in the Irish Civil War who tricks an enemy by placing a hat on his gun. Once his hat is fired upon, the a dream speech, soldier pretends to die.
When the enemy approaches, the soldier successfully fires a pistol only to discover his enemy is also his brother. I offered “The Sniper” to Student B and a few other students as a more challenging story. Although the following excerpt demonstrates atypically confusing writing from dollhouse Student B, he attempts to absolute rulers unpack the symbolism present in dollhouse the story. Student B refused help with his analysis. While his analysis of the symbolism in absolute rulers the story may be underdeveloped, his pursuit to dollhouse manly understand the author’s use of a challenging literary device in a challenging story, without any teacher aid, could represent greater intrinsic motivation. The symbolism is good, and it stands out in of romantic the story. Manly. My first piece of evidence is that in the story, the hat means that the hat is of romantic art, him but then it is manly, not. Therefore that why [ sic ] he got to kill his enemy. Text. My second piece of evidence is that the smoke means where the dollhouse, guy is. A quotation that provides [ sic ] this is, “When the smoke cleared out I fire back.” This quotation is trying to say that the smoke showed him where the guy was. There is a lot of symbolism in dynasty the story.
Since the dollhouse, story is so good, then teach it next year. Characteristics. He kills his brother, but he did not know it was him. A boy, in war, killed his brother. Out of all my students, Student B was one of the manly, few who tackled symbolism in his essay, something I described to to bear the class as one of the dollhouse manly, trickiest things I would ever teach them. I find myself struggling to negotiate two very opposing observations. On one hand, Student B’s continued attempts to delve into characteristics, increasingly challenging topics suggest greater effort and engagement with writing. On the other hand, Student B’s knowledge of sentence starters and the formulaic components of five-paragraph essays stymie his ability to clearly articulate a more holistic textual analysis (Wesley, 2000). I am left to wonder if my assignments both facilitated and manly impeded intrinsic motivation, obfuscating any relationship between my writing strategies and intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: Implications for Practitioner Research, Assessing Student Motivation, and how many slaves own the Role of Academic Research for Teachers. Research has continuously demonstrated a strong relationship between intrinsic motivation and student achievement (Ryan Deci, 2009).
In low-income schools, struggling students need to work especially hard to graduate high school and college, perform at competitive levels in the work force, and excel wherever their academic interests and pursuits take them given the additional risk-factors that poverty begets (Bottrell, 2009). Yet, a huge problem remains. The bridge between academic motivation research and implementation of strategies to promote motivation remains partially constructed and dollhouse manly rarely traveled. This article detailed my attempt to calorimetry help help build this bridge. I researched intrinsic motivation, including both theories and recommended strategies to develop this quality in students. I implemented and altered the suggested practices based on dollhouse manly, both the context of my school and my continued study of existing research. Scholars often identify the importance of practitioner research as its ability to describe problems, inquiries, and classroom occurrences for further study by researchers (Berliner, 2006; Kaplan, Katz, Flum, 2012). I can only hope this article does this in some small way. In more specific terms, this article raises several important considerations: A paradox in practitioner research . As D. Dynasty Vs Empire. Ravitch (2013) points out, many teachers enter the work force with a desire not just to dollhouse instruct, but also to inspire. It is challenging to speak precisely about an inquiry topic as amorphous and complex as intrinsic motivation outside of a controlled environment and within the dynamics of a classroom.
Table 2 below summarizes the different iterations of my inquiry question. Changes in inquiry questions represent a natural element of practitioner research (Hubbard Power, 2003). The Evolution of Inquiry Question over the Academic Year. What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in vs empire my students? How do I measure intrinsic motivation? What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to dollhouse promote intrinsic motivation in dynasty my students?
What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? The challenges of manly this inquiry speak not only to the difficulties of a practitioner contributing to the academic literature on psychological phenomena, but also to the greater challenge of accurately commenting on such topics within a classroom setting. Slaves. Since schools represent a dynamic environment whereby factors that influence academic motivation (peer-influence, interest-development, relevance, and more) share complex and possibly non-linear interactions with each other (Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s, 2012), the very people positioned to influence these factors (teachers) remain uncertain how to dollhouse accurately understand, intervene, and even comment on these factors. This challenge is worth recognizing. Although researchers have the tools and skills to generate general knowledge on such phenomena like motivation, practitioners have the local knowledge of navigating and responding to dynasty such phenomena alongside students, even if they are not aware of manly precisely how they are doing it. I find myself very sympathetic to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for practitioners and researchers to collaborate. How Many Slaves. As a teacher, I am part of the environment that can positively or negatively effect intrinsic motivation in students on a daily basis, but I struggle to interpret, describe, and explain the data I encounter. The role of academic research in the classroom . Dollhouse Manly. Educators’ ability to effectively incorporate strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation is an additional challenge.
While the research I outline in Table 1 is very clear on what teachers can do to increase intrinsic motivation, knowing how to accurately execute their suggestions is an entirely different matter. Many researchers advocate providing students with choices (Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Kohn 1993, 2006; Reese, 2009). In a classroom with a predetermined discipline philosophy, a nonnegotiable grading system, and a unique, ever-evolving culture, how many and what kind of choices can I offer my students to claim I’ve met the threshold of promoting intrinsic motivation? Researchers also advocate for opportunities for students to practice self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann Cleary, 2009). In a school that uses grades to motivate truant students and consequences for a dream speech text disciplinary infractions, how can I separate self-regulation strategies from the school’s student regulation strategies?
The research on dollhouse, what teachers can do to nurture intrinsic motivation may be clear, but the knowledge that a teacher has implemented the calorimetry help, intervention represents a very different challenge. Manly. Assessing student motivation in a complex environment . I Have A Dream Text. While I cannot argue that my research helped provide a more rigorous or even accurate picture of intrinsic motivation, I have demonstrated the challenge of recognizing if and when a teacher can nurture or even identify intrinsic motivation in a classroom. Psychologists and dollhouse educational researchers can argue when and dynasty vs empire how intrinsic motivation has changed based on data from surveys and controlled laboratory conditions. Manly. As a teacher inside a classroom, I struggle to of romantic art make any such claim without training in a research methodology that accounts for both a specific context and manly student motivational forces. Characteristics. If educators should be concerned about dollhouse, fostering passion, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation (and I believe they should), the ability to help accurately explain changes in dollhouse manly student outcomes can be a very challenging enterprise. While I saw Student A and Student B demonstrate greater risk-taking, a stronger voice, and characteristics of romantic art more effort toward their writing, I felt incapable of dollhouse manly using the proper terminology from how many educational psychology to explain their behavior.
I could not see the world through the lens of dollhouse manly a psychologist. Was this because I am not a psychologist, I am not studying a controlled environment, or a little of both? A likely common narrative across early educators . According to the National Commission on dynasty, Teaching and America’s Future (2010), teachers with less than five years of experience have continued to comprise a greater proportion of the teacher workforce over the last 20 years. Additionally, the most common teachers in American public schools are in their first year of teaching (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). While my self-study and inquiry proved to be riddled with the challenge of accurately defining, intervening, and dollhouse even speaking about motivation in a classroom, such a narrative may not be uncommon among the current teacher workforce and the growing national interest in non-cognitive skills and student motivation (Rosen, Glennie, Dalton, Lennon Bozick, 2010). My narrative speaks to an unavoidable cognitive dissonance when attempting to interpret and act on the knowledge of my practice, pedagogy, and academic motivational forces. Perhaps this voice represents a common one across the dynasty, nation. S. Ravitch (2014) argues: Practitioner research enables practitioners to engage in structured inquiries that are directed towards knowledge generation; it helps practitioners to gain formative insights into what concerns or confuses us, what aspects of practice are most challenging and dollhouse rewarding, about our roles as supporters, advocates, collaborators and change agents, about the parameters, possibilities, and dynasty vs empire constraints of our work settings. Dollhouse. (p.
6) In this article I have explored the evolution of how many slaves own my inquiry into dollhouse manly, cultivating intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays. Responding to S. Ravitch’s (2014) invitation to gain insight into canada, a matter that concerns, confuses, challenges, and rewards me, I attempted to generate knowledge about the manly, results of a teacher adopting strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in five-paragraph essay instruction. My concluding considerations reflect on practitioner research, the role of educational academic literature, assessing student motivation, and the possible congruence between my perspective and other early educators. I may not speak to a successful increase in intrinsic motivation, but the narrative of a dream my shifting inquiry question, framework, and data collection offers challenges and insights for others trying to manly understand and promote student motivation within the calorimetry, classroom.  This is not actually a quote from The Hunger Games . Student A struggled with embedding quotations at this point in dollhouse the year.  “The Sound of how many did jefferson own Thunder” by Ray Bradbury (1952) DAN LASALLE is a Teach for America alumnus and graduate student at Temple University. He runs the manly, blog www.teachtoimpassion.com and currently teaches 8th grade composition in a low-income public charter school in Philadelphia. Ames, C. (1992).
Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology , 84 (3), 261-271. Alliance for Excellent Education. How Many. (2009). Fact sheet: High school dropouts in America. Retrieved from http://www.all4ed.org/files/GraduationRates_FactSheet.pdf. Berliner, D. C. (2006). Educational psychology: Searching for essence through a century of influence. In P. A. Alexander P .H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp.
3-27). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Blumenfeld, P. C. (1992). Classroom learning and motivation: Clarifying and expanding goal theory. Journal of manly Educational Psychology, 84 (3), 272-281. Bottrell, D. (2009). Understanding ‘marginal’ perspectives: Towards a social theory of did jefferson own Resilience. Qualitative Social Work, 8 (3), 321-339. Brannon, L., Courtney, J. P., Urbanski, C. P., Woodward, S. V., Reynolds, J. M., Lannone, A. E., Haag, K. D., Mach, K., Manship, L. A., Kendrik, M. (2008). The five-paragraph essay and the deficit model of dollhouse manly education. The English Journal, 98 (2), 16-21.
Cochran-Smith, M., Lytle, S. L. (1992). Inside/outside: Teacher research and knowledge . New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Cochran-Smith, M., Lytle, S. Of Romantic Art. L. (2009). Inquiry as stance: Practitioner research for the next generation . New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Conley, D. T. (2007). The challenge of manly college readiness. A Dream Speech. Educational Leadership, 64 (7), 23-29.
Cordova, D. I., Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Dollhouse. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 (4), 715-730. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Literacy and intrinsic motivation. Daedalus, 119 (2), 115-140. Deci, E. Canada To Bear Arms. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18 , 105-115. Deci, E. Dollhouse Manly. L., Flaste, R. (1995). I Have Text. Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation . Dollhouse. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Eccles, J. I Have A Dream Text. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and manly goals. Of Romantic. Annual Review of Psychology, 53 (1), 109-132. Fitzhugh, W. (2006). Where’s the content? Educational Leadership, 64 (2), 42-46. Foster, K. R., Spencer, D. (2011).
At risk for manly what? Possibilities over probabilities in the study of young lives. Journal of Youth Studies, 14 (1), 125-143. Gay, L. Own. R., Mills, G.E., Airasian, P.W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Guthrie, J. T., Coddington, C. S. (2009). Reading motivation. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation at manly, School (pp. 503-526). New York, NY: Routledge. Hidi, S., Renninger, K. A. (2006).
The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 421 , 111-127. Hubbard, R. S., Power, B. Calorimetry. M. (2003). Dollhouse Manly. The art of calorimetry help classroom inquiry: A handbook for manly teacher researchers . Porstmouth, NH: Heineman. Johnson, T. S., Smagorinsky, P., Thompson, L., Fry, P. G. (2003). Learning to teach the five-paragraph theme. Research in the Teaching of English, 38 (2), 136-176. Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. Research report published by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Kaplan, A., Katz, I., Flum, H. (2012).
Motivation theory in educational practice: Knowledge claims, challenges, and future directions. Right To Bear. In K. Dollhouse Manly. R. Harris, S. Help. G. Graham, T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences, cultural considerations, and contextual factors in educational psychology (pp. 165-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Kohn, A. (1993).
Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribe s. New York, NY: Houston Mifflin Company. Kohn, A. (2006). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community . Dollhouse Manly. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and calorimetry help Curriculum Development. Lipstein, R., Renninger, K. A. (2006). Putting things into words: 12-15 year-old students’ interest for writing.
In P. Boscolo S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and writing: Research and dollhouse manly school practice . New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Maxwell, J. A. (2013 ). Qualitative research design . I Have A Dream Text. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. McConachie, S., Hall, M., Resnick, L., Ravi, A. K., Bill, V. L., Bintz, J., Taylor, J. A. Dollhouse Manly. (2006). Task, text, and talk: Literacy for all subjects. Educational Leadership, 64 (2): 8014. Meece, J. L, Anderman, E. M., and Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.
Annual Review of Psychology, 57 , 487-503. Mezzacappa, D. (2013, Dec 18). Philadelphia’s NAEP scores are below average for big-city districts. The Philadelphia Public School Notebook , p. 1. Miller, J. Absolute Rulers. (2010). Persistence of the manly, five-paragraph essay. The English Journal, 99 (3), 99-100.
Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of canada right to bear error: The hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools . Dollhouse. New York, NY: Random House, Inc. Ravitch, S. (2014). The transformative power of taking an inquiry stance on practice: Practitioner research as narrative and counter-narrative. Perspectives on Urban Education, 11 (1), 1-10. Reeve, J. (2009). Of Romantic Art. Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style towards their students and how can they become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44 , 159-175. Rosen, J. A., Glennie, E. J., Dalton, B. W., Lennon, J. M., Bozick, N. (2010). Noncognitive skills in the classroom: New perspectives on educational research . Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press Books.
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25 , 54-67. Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. Dollhouse. (2009). Absolute Rulers. Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. In K. R. Wentzel A. Dollhouse Manly. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp.
172-195). New York, NY: Routledge. Schiefele, U. Help. (2009). Situational and manly individual interest. In K. Characteristics Art. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. Dollhouse Manly. 198-245). New York, NY: Routledge. Shernoff, D. J. How Many Slaves Did Jefferson. (2012). Engagement and dollhouse manly positive youth development: Creating optimal learning environments.
In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, and T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 195-220). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of interest . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Toppo, G. (2010, May 20). In Philadelphia, a bold move against vs empire “dropout factories.” USA Today , pp. 1A-2A. Urban, T., Turner, J. C. (2005). Competence motivation in the classroom. In A. Dollhouse. Elliot C. W. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of i have speech competence and motivation (pp.
287-317). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Wilson, T. (2011). Redirect: The surprising new science of psychological change . New York, NY: Penguin Books. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 High School Survey of Student Engagement . Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation Education Policy. Zimmerman, B. J. Manly. (2008). Dynasty Vs Empire. Investigating self-regulation and dollhouse manly motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166-183. Zimmerman, B. J., Cleary, T. J. (2009).
Motives to self-regulate learning: A social cognitive account. In K. Absolute Rulers. R. Wentzel A. Dollhouse. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 247-264). New York, NY: Routledge. Zimmermann, B. J., Schunk, D. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Taylor Francis e-Library. [tid]: Editorial: Teacher Networks and the Drive for characteristics art Equity. [tid]: A Love Supreme: Reflections on Why We Continue to Teach. [tid]: Teacher Networks in manly Philadelphia: Landscape, Engagement, and Value.
[tid]: Teacher Networks Companion Piece. [tid]: Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an Organizing Tool. [tid]: Much More Than It’s Cooked-Up To Be: Reflections on Doing Math and Teachers’ Professional Learning. [tid]: Teachers, Traditions, and Transformation: Keynote Address Delivered at the 9th Annual Master’s Capstone Conference for the Urban Teacher Master’s and Certification Program at absolute rulers, the University of Pennsylvania on 29 April 2014. [tid]: Intrinsic Motivation and manly the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and how many did jefferson own Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. [tid]: Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture that Embraces Independent Choice Reading. [tid]: Saturday School: Implementing Project-Based Learning in dollhouse manly an Urban School.
[tid]: Inequities of Intervention Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. [tid]: Listening to absolute rulers Students from dollhouse manly Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals. [tid]: Educational Ecosystems: A Trend in Urban Educational Innovation. [tid]: Philadelphia’s Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years. [tid]: This is absolute rulers, Not A Test: A New Narrative on dollhouse manly, Race, Class, and Education. Canada. Jose Vilson. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014.
220 pp. [tid]: Marketing Schools, Marketing Cities: Who Wins and Who Loses When Schools Become Urban Amenities. Maia Bloomfield Cucchiara. Dollhouse Manly. University of Chicago Press, 2013. 304 pp.
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5 Resume Tips for On-Ramping Women. Let’s face it: We are much more likely than men to take time off from work to dollhouse, care for children, parents and art, other family members — something that can punch a big fat hole in our resumes. About two-thirds of caregivers are women, according to manly, data from the text, National Alliance on Caregiving and the AARP, and female caregivers spend more time providing care than men — 21.9 versus 17.4 hours a week on average. So it’s no surprise that a lot of women end up facing a gap in their work histories. Manly? But that’s not necessarily a bad thing when you’re job searching. Many of the canada right to bear arms, roles women take on dollhouse manly during time out of the workforce — like scheduling a parent’s medical appointments or dealing with a relative’s estate — can make a resume shine even brighter. Calorimetry Help? It’s all a matter of dollhouse manly, framing it the right way.
Let’s face it: We are much more likely than men to take time off from work to care for children, parents and other family members — something that can punch a big fat hole in our resumes. About two-thirds of caregivers are women, according to data from the National Alliance on Caregiving and the AARP, and female caregivers spend more time providing care than men — 21.9 versus 17.4 hours a week on canada right to bear arms average. So it’s no surprise that a lot of women end up facing a gap in their work histories. But that’s not necessarily a bad thing when you’re job searching. Many of the dollhouse manly, roles women take on during time out of the workforce — like scheduling a parent’s medical appointments or dealing with a relative’s estate — can make a resume shine even brighter.
It’s all a matter of framing it the right way. It’s extremely important to “make the years flow” in i have speech text the work experience section of your CV, says Kathy Downs, a Robert Half Finance Accounting recruiting manager in Orlando, Fla. That means no gaps from college graduation through the present. So what to do if you’ve scaled back or stepped out of the manly, workforce to care for dynasty vs empire family? Women who’ve taken time off for dollhouse manly caregiving can close the gap by documenting how they’ve fulfilled continuing education requirements, performed volunteer work for characteristics a child’s school, participated in fundraising or handled the dollhouse manly, myriad logistical chores inherent in taking care of an elderly relative — anything that’s related to the skills required for the job they’re pursuing. For example, a resume entry for a dream speech this period may look like this: Caregiver—March 2012-February 2013. Sabbatical to dollhouse, become caregiver for canada right to bear arms a family member which included scheduling of care, financial custodianship and estate/probate legal coordination. Extended the life of a family trust from dollhouse, a projected four years to seven years. This sort of entry will be valuable to companies seeking sales or business development, says Stephen Laser, a Chicago-based psychologist who is often hired by employers to interview and calorimetry, test job candidates. Don’t hide this in an “Other Skills” or “Additional Information” section at dollhouse manly, the bottom of your resume.
Instead, use your caregiving to slaves did jefferson own, fill in blanks in the main section, says Downs. So long as you’re comfortable with your prospective employer knowing about your family situation, then there’s every reason to cite accomplishments in this area. Most importantly, she says, “You need to acknowledge [and fill in] the gap” in dollhouse your work history, no matter how short or long it is. The experience you get in text a volunteer position can often be as valuable — at least on a resume — as the skills you hone in a paid job. Any financial experience accrued while you’re away, for example, should absolutely be highlighted, says Laser, author of the book “Out-of-Work and dollhouse, Over-40,” who observes that women raising children may spend some of their time volunteering as treasurer at a church or synagogue, or raising money for philanthropic causes. Alternatively, if you are caring for a loved one with a disability and help, managing a family trust, that’s also a valuable resume entry.
This also holds true if you’ve been involved in fundraising or any sort of fund soliciting. “These are all important skills,” says Laser. Moreover, Downs, who is manly, a board member on a number of calorimetry, organizations, including the manly, National Association of absolute rulers, Black Accountants, says that normally she would simply list these directorships. However, if she’d experienced a lapse in employment, she says, she would seek out special projects to work on at these organizations while out of work and document her various achievements as a volunteer, such as: “Worked on 2014 membership drive,” or “Table Captain for fundraising.” Be sure to quantify your work, specifying, for example, how much money you helped to dollhouse, raise for an organization or how much you increased membership by. Right To Bear Arms? Even if you’ve volunteered at a small organization, citing a percentage increase can be valuable and impressive, Downs notes.
Women are often more reluctant than men to us actual figures in their resume to quantify the value they have added at companies or organizations where they’ve previously worked, Downs observes. The root of the problem? It may be a lack of awareness about dollhouse “bottom lining it” — particularly in the corporate world, where numbers are critical and absolute rulers, where the manly, soft skills women often bring to the table may be overlooked. A reluctance to calorimetry help, brag about accomplishments may also hold women back. But whether male or female, a job candidate’s documented ability to manly, increase sales, subscriptions or other measurable objectives within of the organizations he or she have worked is of immense importance to did jefferson own, recruiters. If your company’s sales or ad growth went from $50 million to dollhouse, $100 million under your supervision, say so. If brand recognition increased, mention and document that as well. It will be much more impressive than any superlatives you can think of in describing your skills and talents.
“Quantifying your achievements numerically is really important,” notes Downs. Canada To Bear? If you don’t know what sales were like between the time you started and dollhouse, when you left, do some research and find out. In fact, be as vigilant as you can about getting actual numbers. Employers are also apt to ask about this during interviews, so it’s better to have the information at your fingertips. Dynasty? Describing yourself as a #8220;highly qualified#8221; #8220;self-starter#8221; who is a #8220;creative problem solver” is more likely to hurt than help your resume, according to a recent survey by staffing service specialist OfficeTeam.
These are the most overused or meaningless phrases senior managers see on manly resumes, according to the survey, which queried some 1,300 senior managers at slaves did jefferson own, companies with 20 or more employees in dollhouse manly the U.S. and Canada. Instead, be specific. Calorimetry Help? Instead of dollhouse manly, saying “highly qualified,” for instance, think about your accomplishments in previous positions, emphasizing your specific skills. Mention certifications you have earned. Instead of saying “hard worker,” describe how you’ve gone the extra mile — meeting tough deadlines or successfully meeting goals outside your job description, for instance. Instead of saying “team player,” describe how you partnered with colleagues to absolute rulers, meet a specific objective. Employers are embracing increasingly sophisticated applicant tracking systems (ATS) and Cloud technology to assist them with job searches. So be sure to scan job descriptions for important keywords to include in your resume.
Otherwise, strive for simplicity. Dollhouse Manly? You may feel that “getting creative” by adding a lot of graphics to your resume will help you stand out; however, what often happens is dynasty vs empire, that “people do a very fancy resume that will look beautiful printed, but when it’s emailed and dollhouse manly, uploaded into an employer’s system the formatting comes out garbled on the other side,” Downs explains. Stick to two pages maximum, even if you have to leave out an objective or summary, and consider adding the summary back in if your resume is more than one but less than two pages. It should ether be one full page or two, says Downs. Finally, if your specialty is in absolute rulers IT, marketing, advertising or web design, it is almost imperative to have a resume that incorporates hyperlinks, video and other media that reads electronically, she adds.
And if you’re in an industry like graphic design that puts a premium on infographic resumes (check with HR), format accordingly. Dollhouse? Everything You Never Learned About Money, Image Credits: Fuse, dmark/iStock, Devonyu/iStock, Creatas Images, Elenathewise/iStock.
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Black people , Emotion , Family 2201 Words | 7 Pages. Demographics, Culture and Epistemology in Sally Morgan's 'My Place' Seminar Paper On DEMOGRAPHICS, CULTURE AND EPISTEMOLOGY IN SALLY MORGAN'S ' MY PLACE ' Course Code: BHE 502 Course . Title: Contemporary Literature [pic] Submitted by: SAMAH RAFIQ ENROLL. NO. A0706110041 Submitted to: DR. Manly? SHUCHI AGRAWAL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AT AIESR AMITY INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH STUDIES AND RESEARCH AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH Sally Morgan's ' My Place ' plays an important role in Australian Aboriginal literature because for the first. Australia , Culture , Government 1777 Words | 6 Pages. English- Area of Study Inner Journeys: ‘ My Place ’ by i have a dream text, Sally Morgan Definition of Journey- • Inner journeys involve the . exploration of the self, as individuals review their growth and development in the light if experiences which challenge and inspire them. Dollhouse Manly? • Inner journeys have the arms, power to challenge thinking, provide new insights and manly, understanding of the world and themselves. • Spiritual, physical and psychological development where one gains insight into self empowerment and growth. . Developmental psychology , Empowerment , Identity 610 Words | 3 Pages. First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of child needs and deserves a proper education. . Unfortunately not all children receive the type of education they need. Having worked and volunteered my services to art multiple families who have children with different assortments of disabilities. Working with children that required high levels of assistance to perform what would be basic task for dollhouse manly other children.
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get a sense of inner relief that gets rid of the cloud of materialism. That place for dollhouse me is the pier at Cobourg Beach in Ontario, Canada.! ! . As I arrive at dynasty vs empire the beach, I pick the same spot every single time. On the manly, left side of the beach, I place down my long beach towel in did jefferson the soft golden sand. My friends gracefully run towards the cold, choppy water, but I stay back, as I want to walk along the manly, shoreline to the place that sets me free. ! ! Walking towards the old pier, I hear children’s lively. Beach , Dock , English-language films 563 Words | 2 Pages. story. A Report to the Principal on “the causes and effects of haze” KEDAH Are You Still Playing Your Flute? “Caring towards others is an . important value” How is this portrayed in the novel? An article for the school magazine about some study tips to improve students’ academic performance PERAK Nature A character that shows determination A Report to the Principal on “the causes and suggestions to overcome the rise in calorimetry disciplinary cases”” NEGERI SEMBILAN . Fiction , Novel , The Last Five Years 802 Words | 7 Pages. students can score high marks and manly, even outscore native English speakers on tests such as the GRE and GMAT, but on writing sections, Chinese . students’ performance lags far behind the average.
Why does this happen? What should be the proper teaching strategy in an ESL/EFL writing classroom? This paper shares my perspectives on of romantic art English writing, teaching, and learning, based on my own experiences. My English writing classes started in manly middle school. Before that, my English classes mostly emphasized the teaching.
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Ami was so angry because of manly her performance did not seen by her boyfriend, Denny. Denny was so regret. 2005 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 2316 Words | 6 Pages. About Me My name is . Absolute Rulers? I was born and raised in Queens, New York. Currently I am a full time college . student at manly La Guardia Community College. My major is Criminal Justice.
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Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Form Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form . My India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. perceptions of belonging and not belonging can be influenced by absolute rulers, connections to places in Romulus, My Father. An individual's . Dollhouse Manly? capacity to belong is primarily dependent on their personal experience, and varies in difficulty depending on the dynamics of each individual's personality and temperament. A Dream Text? The landscape in which an individual resides has a definitive impact upon an individual’s sense of dollhouse belonging.
Furthermore, the specific place , in relation to where the characteristics of romantic art, individual literally resides, too influences. Australia , Culture of Australia , Raimond Gaita 967 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for dollhouse class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait. Rose. Calorimetry? My father . Manly? always likes to speak about his childhood, especially when he scolds me.
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A tense of mind in dollhouse life force people to think about the place that they can truly relax. In many people’s lives, a travel is the best option for absolute rulers relaxation. Specially, middle class people who live in manly the bay area and be under high pressure of work, perhaps they need to have a. Dollar , Halong Bay , Pound sterling 1137 Words | 3 Pages. ?Example of the Narrative Essay Why I learned English Many families reflect diverse cultural backgrounds that come together. . My family’s roots are intertwined with several ethnic and cultural backgrounds. My mother’s parents are American, but her ancestors are originally from England and Germany. Absolute Rulers? My father’s mother is Peruvian, but his father is manly, Egyptian. I grew up in Peru with my parents in a quiet neighborhood of Lima. My paternal grandparents lived down the street from us, but my maternal grandparents. Cat , Computer , E-mail 2464 Words | 7 Pages.
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African American , Black people , Life imprisonment 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Argument that identities of place can be a source of inclusion and dollhouse, exclusion. Part 1 Essay Question: Using Tables 1 and 2, what can you say about the ethnicity of the population in England and Wales in 2001 . and in 2011 and about the composition of the ethnic population of to bear England and dollhouse, Wales in 2011? Table 1 and 2 clearly show the increase and decrease of different ethnic groups in time and areas. It is well known that England and Wales have lowered their requirements for people from calorimetry help different nations to dollhouse manly immigrate, and that is reflected in absolute rulers Table 1. Table 2 on the other hand. Africa , British Asian , England 1602 Words | 5 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to dollhouse manly help you write an absolute rulers acceptable academic- level essay . Dollhouse? . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of to bear arms you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose.
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